Founded by Nabopolassar, the Neo-Babylonian empire succeeded the Neo-Assyrian empire (934-610 B.C.E.) in dominating the Mespotamian world. Nabopolassar’s son Nebuchadnezzar II is the most famous king from this period: he built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and destroyed Jerusalem.
Nabonidus (reigned 555-539 B.C.E.) was the last king of the Neo-Babylonian empire. His may have divided the people with unpopular religious reforms, although this is debatable and may have been Persian propaganda. He was defeated by Cyrus II of the Persian Empire. This was in spite of his attempts at building Babylonian alliances among neighboring countries.